Prev NEXT Recent research suggests that our response to stress could be influenced by our experiences in the womb. Scientists have been studying mechanisms by which maternal stress — and the resulting high levels of cortisol in her body during pregnancy — could affect the development of the baby. According to the research, if a mother has high cortisol levels, the fetus will have similarly high levels. As a result, this exposure could effect the level of receptors for stress-related substances in the brain, which may make them more susceptible to stressors later in life.
One answer is that they are modelling the behaviour of their own parents, having learned how to parent in the course of being parented. Yet another major determinant of their behaviour lies in their general attitudes as well as specific beliefs, thoughts, and feelings that are activated during parenting: Subject Child-rearing attitudes are cognitions that predispose an individual to act either positively or negatively toward a child.
Attitudes most frequently considered involve the degree of warmth and acceptance or coldness and rejection that exists in the parent-child relationship, as well as the extent to which parents are permissive or restrictive in the limits they set for their offspring. Researchers have also studied more situation-specific thoughts or schemas — filters through which parents interpret and react to events, particularly ambiguous ones.
These include cognitions such as beliefs about parenting abilities, expectations about what children are capable of or should be expected to do, and reasons why children have behaved in a particular way.
Problems The influence of attitudes on parenting behaviours has been a favourite topic of investigation, with research suggesting that linkages are generally of a modest nature. For example, parents might endorse or value being warm and responsive to children, but have difficulty expressing those feelings when their child is misbehaving.
As a result of this realization the study of parent cognitions has been widened to include more specific ways of thinking. Research Context The study of parent attitudes, belief systems, and thinking has taken place along with changing conceptions of child-rearing.
These changes have emphasized the bidirectional nature of interactions, with children influencing parents as well as parents influencing children.
Key Research Questions Which parental attitudes result in the best child outcomes? Recent Research Results A large body of research on attitudes indicates that parental warmth together with reasonable levels of control combine to produce positive child outcomes.
Although not strong, as noted above, the results are consistent. Researchers have noted that what is seen to be a reasonable level of control varies as a function of sociocultural context. As an example, parents look for reasons why both they and their children act the way the do.
These attributions can make parenting more efficient when they are accurate. These negative feelings distract parents from the task of parenting, and make it more difficult for them to react appropriately and effectively to the challenges of socialization.
For example, Bugental and colleagues have studied mothers who believe their children have more power than they do in situations where events are not going well. They send confusing messages to their children, with the result that children stop paying attention to them as well as showing a decrease in cognitive ability.
Similarly, mothers of infants who are low in self-efficacy, that is, do not believe they can parent effectively, give up on parenting when the task is challenging and become depressed.
They are cold and disengaged in interactions with their babies.
Mothers report higher endorsement of progressive parenting attitudes, encouraging their children to think and verbalize their own ideas and opinions, whereas fathers endorse a more authoritarian approach.
Conclusions The study of parent cognitions, beliefs, thoughts, and feelings can expand our knowledge of child development. Child-rearing cognitions influence parents to act either positively or negatively towards their children. These beliefs have been considered good predictors of parenting behaviour because they indicate the emotional climate in which children and parents operate and the health of the relationship.
When the thoughts are benign, they direct positive actions. When the thoughts are accurate they will usually lead to positive actions. When they are distorted and distressing, however, they distract parents from the task at hand as well as leading to negative emotions and attributions that ultimately impair effective parenting.
But problems can also arise when parents engage in maladaptive thinking. Mothers at a higher risk of child abuse, for example, are more likely to attribute negative traits to children who demonstrate ambiguous behaviour, and see this behaviour as intentional.
They found that mothers who participated in the program showed improvement in parenting cognitions, diminished levels of harsh parenting, and greater emotional availability.This study examines the phenomenon of “mothers’ employment demands and its impact on the development and wellbeing of children in the society.
The focus is on the influence of mother’s employment demands on child’s. Dec 20, · From the children's responses to these situations, Ainsworth found that most infants had secure attachments. They played and explored comfortably when their mothers were present, became visibly upset when they .
Recent research suggests that our response to stress could be influenced by our experiences in the womb. Scientists have been studying mechanisms by which maternal stress — and the resulting high levels of cortisol in her body during pregnancy — could affect the development of the baby.
Dec 20, · From the children's responses to these situations, Ainsworth found that most infants had secure attachments. They played and explored comfortably when their mothers were present, became visibly upset when they left, and calmed quickly upon their return.
The influence of attitudes on parenting behaviours has been a favourite topic of investigation, with research suggesting that linkages are generally of a modest nature.
1 In part, this is because reported attitudes do not always have a direct impact on parenting actions which are often directed by specific features of the situation. For example, parents might endorse or value being warm and responsive to . Furthermore, long-term effects of parental conflicts on children’s condition and behaviour could be examined.
Foreasmuchas, the research of the effects of parental conflicts on the child and its practical implications will remain of central importance and topical in the future.