Although both ancient and modern Chinese are mostly written with the same characters, the modern daughter languages have become very different from the ancient one. One of the most conspicious differences is just that the terse, monosyllabic nature of Classical Chinese --"old writing," or"literary language" -- has given way to many more particles, polysyllabic words, and periphrastic idioms.
In fact, as J. The wealth of the ancient city-states of Venice and Genoa was based on their powerful navies, and treaties with other great powers to control trade.
This evolved into nations designing their trade policies to intercept the wealth of others mercantilism. Occasionally one powerful country would overwhelm another through interception of its wealth though a trade war, covert war, or hot war; but the weaker, less developed countries usually lose in these exchanges.
It is the military power of the more developed countries that permits them to dictate the terms of trade and maintain unequal relationships. As European and American economies grew, they needed to continue expansion to maintain the high standards of living that some elites were attaining in those days.
This required holding on to, and expanding colonial territories in order to gain further access to the raw materials and resources, as well exploiting cheap labor. Those who resisted were often met with brutal repression or military interventions. This is not a controversial perception.
President Woodrow Wilson recognized this in the early part of the 20th century: Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed against him must be battered down.
Concessions obtained by financiers must be safeguarded by ministers of state, even if the sovereignty of unwilling nations be outraged in the process. Colonies must be obtained or planted, in order that no useful corner of the world may be overlooked or left unused.
Richard Robbins, Professor of Anthropology and author of Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism is also worth quoting at length: The Great Global Depression of that lasted essentially until was the first great manifestation of the capitalist business crisis.
The depression was not the first economic crisis [as there had been many for thousands of years] but the financial collapse of revealed the degree of global economic integration, and how economic events in one part of the globe could reverberate in others.
Given this situation, if you were an American or European investor inwhere would you look for economic expansion? The obvious answer was to expand European and American power overseas, particularly into areas that remained relatively untouched by capitalist expansion — Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.
Colonialism had become, in fact, a recognized solution to the need to expand markets, increase opportunities for investors, and ensure the supply of raw material. In Rhodes said: I was in the East End of London yesterday and attended a meeting of the unemployed.
I listened to the wild speeches, which were just a cry for breadbread, and on my way home I pondered over the scene and I became more than ever convinced of the importance of imperialism.
The Empire, as I have always said, is a bread and butter question. If you want to avoid civil war, you must become imperialist. As a result of this cry for imperialist expansion, people all over the world were converted into producers of export crops as millions of subsistence farmers were forced to become wage laborers producing for the market and required to purchase from European and American merchants and industrialists, rather than supply for themselves, their basic needs.
World War II was another such battle, perhaps the ultimate one. However, the former imperial nations realized that to fight like this is not the way, and became more cooperative instead.
The Soviet attempt of an independent path to development flawed that it was, because of its centralized, paranoid and totalitarian perspectiveswas a threat to these centers of capital because their own colonies might get the wrong idea and also try for an independent path to their development.
Because World War II left the empires weak, the colonized countries started to break free.
In some places, where countries had the potential to bring more democratic processes into place and maybe even provide an example for their neighbors to follow it threatened multinational corporations and their imperial or former imperial states for example, by reducing access to cheap resources.
As a result, their influence, power and control was also threatened. Often then, military actions were sanctioned.
To the home populations, the fear of communism was touted, even if it was not the case, in order to gain support. From Colonization to Globalization, Ocean Press,p.
Hence, there is no surprise that some of the main World War II rivals, USA, Germany and Japan as well as other European nations are so prosperous, while the former colonial countries are still so poor; the economic booms of those wealthy nations have been at the expense of most people around the world.Everything Is Connected: Philosophy: Environmental Philosophy: Ecofeminism Ecofeminism Ecofeminism examines the connections between the oppression of women and environmental destruction.
They both result from a social hierarchy that allows, if not encourages, the abuse or destruction of anything or anyone who is low status. Praise for NO TIME TO SPARE Longlisted for the PEN/Diamonstein-Spielvogel Award for the Art of the Essay A TimeOut Book to Cozy Up to This December A Real Simple Best Book to Read in December A Bustle Best Book to Read in December One of Southern Living's Unputdownable Reads to Curl Up with in December A Harper's Bazaar Best .
This List of Chinese quotations is composed of quotations that are important for Chinese culture, history and politics. There are over documentaries now cataloged in our library of social change plombier-nemours.com's probably way too many for any mortal to ever watch in a lifetime, let alone a few years.
Surely some will attempt it, but for the rest of us, we thought it'd be great to highlight 93 of the best of them.
Ethics in Machiavelli's The Prince - Ethics in Machiavelli's The Prince Niccolo Machiavelli () was an Italian statesman and political philosopher. movement ("Movement overcomes cold.
Stillness overcomes heat." - Lao Tzu) Poets against the war - downloadable from nthposition (needs Adobe) A-Infos - a multi-lingual news service by, for, and about anarchists Aboriginal Connections - indigenous peoples web directory Active Remedy - Reforesting Earth's Mountains Environmental .