Reiner 4 Neuroethics 65 Neuroscience has substantially advanced the understanding of how changes in brain biochemistry contribute to mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence via exposure to addictive drugs.
Classical antiquity[ edit ] Human dissections were carried out by the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Chios in the early part of the third century BC.
Galenfor example, dissected the Barbary macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans. Once the roaming lifestyle was no longer necessary it was replaced in part by the civilization that formed in the Indus Valley.
Unfortunately, there is little that remains from this time to indicate whether or not dissection occurred, the civilization was lost to the Aryan people invading. It was under their rule that medical education was standardized. This created a need to better understand human anatomy, so as to have educated surgeons.
Dissection was limited by the religious taboo on cutting the human body. This changed the approach taken to accomplish the goal.
The process involved the loosening of the tissues in streams of water before the outer layers were sloughed off with soft implements to reach the musculature.
To perfect the technique of slicing, the prospective students used gourds and squash. These techniques of dissection gave rise to an advanced understanding of the anatomy and the enabled them to complete procedures used today, such as rhinoplasty. The number of hours spent in dissection labs during medical school has decreased substantially over the last twenty years.
Ibn al-Nafis, a physician and Muslim jurist, suggested that the "precepts of Islamic law have discouraged us from the practice of dissection, along with whatever compassion is in our temperament",  indicating that while there was no law against it, it was nevertheless uncommon.
Islam dictates that the body be buried as soon as possible, barring religious holidays, and that there be no other means of disposal such as cremation.
This attitude remained constant untilwhen the Islamic School of Jurisprudence in Egypt ruled that "necessity permits the forbidden". Autopsy is prevalent in most Muslim countries for medical and judicial purposes. Tree of physiology Tibetan medicine developed a rather sophisticated knowledge of anatomyacquired from long-standing experience with human dissection.
Tibetans had adopted the practice of sky burial because of the country's hard ground, frozen for most of the year, and the lack of wood for cremation.
A sky burial begins with a ritual dissection of the deceased, and is followed by the feeding of the parts to vultures on the hill tops. Over time, Tibetan anatomical knowledge found its way into Ayurveda  and to a lesser extent into Chinese medicine.
Dissection was rare during the Middle Ages, but it was practised,  with evidence from at least as early as the 13th century. Mondino de Luzzi carried out the first recorded public dissection around He was attacked frequently for his disagreement with Galen's opinions on human anatomy.
Vesalius was the first to lecture and dissect the cadaver simultaneously. They found that there were two distinct hearts, and hence two souls, based on the ancient Greek philosopher Empedocleswho believed the soul resided in the heart. Though most chose to focus on the external surfaces of the body, some like Michelangelo BuonarottiAntonio del PollaioloBaccio Bandinelliand Leonardo da Vinci sought a deeper understanding.
However, there were no provisions for artists to obtain cadavers, so they had to resort to unauthorised means, as indeed anatomists sometimes did, such as grave robbing, body snatching, and murder. It is generally considered a necessary part of learning and is thus accepted culturally.
It sometimes attracts controversy, as when Odense Zoo decided to dissect lion cadavers in public before a "self-selected audience". The permission was quite limited: As a result of pressure from anatomists, especially in the rapidly growing medical schools, the Murder Act allowed the bodies of executed murderers to be dissected for anatomical research and education.
By the 19th century this supply of cadavers proved insufficient, as the public medical schools were growing, and the private medical schools lacked legal access to cadavers.
A thriving black market arose in cadavers and body parts, leading to the creation of the profession of body snatchingand the infamous Burke and Hare murders inwhen 16 people were murdered for their cadavers, to be sold to anatomists. The resulting public outcry led to the passage of the Anatomy Actwhich increased the legal supply of cadavers for dissection.
The Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry in the UK, founded inbecame the first modern medical school to carry out its anatomy education without dissection.
Bysome 75 to 80 percent of American high school biology students were participating in a frog dissection, with a trend towards introduction in elementary schools. The frogs are most commonly from the genus Rana. Other popular animals for high-school dissection at the time of that survey were, among vertebrates, fetal pigsperchand cats; and among invertebrates, earthwormsgrasshopperscrayfishand starfish.
Most of these are purchased already dead from slaughterhouses and farms. The court ruled that mandatory dissections were permissible, but that Graham could ask to dissect a frog that had died of natural causes rather than one that was killed for the purposes of dissection; the practical impossibility of procuring a frog that had died of natural causes in effect let Graham opt out of the required dissection.
The suit gave publicity to anti-dissection advocates.The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances..
While some drugs are illegal to possess, many governments regulate the manufacture, distribution, marketing, sale and use of certain drugs, for . The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances..
While some drugs are illegal to possess, many governments regulate the manufacture, distribution, marketing, sale and use of certain drugs, for instance through a prescription system.
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Arkansas Regional Library. NARL is a consortium of public libraries from Clay, Greene and Randolph Counties. The regional library allows for the pooling of resources to better serve the three counties.