Overview[ edit ] Definitions of complexity often depend on the concept of a confidential " system " — a set of parts or elements that have relationships among them differentiated from relationships with other elements outside the relational regime. Many definitions tend to postulate or assume that complexity expresses a condition of numerous elements in a system and numerous forms of relationships among the elements.
Back to Top Executive Summary The economic outlook for Asia and the Pacific remains strong, and the region continues to be the most dynamic of the global economy. Near-term prospects have improved since the Regional Economic Outlook Update: Asia and Pacific in Octoberand risks around the forecast are broadly balanced for now.
Over the medium term, however, downside risks dominate, including from a tightening of global financial conditions, a shift toward protectionist policies, and an increase in geopolitical tensions.
Given the many uncertainties, macroeconomic policies should be conservative and aimed at building buffers and increasing resilience. Policymakers should also push ahead with structural reforms to address medium- and long-term challenges, such as population aging and declining productivity growth, and to ensure that Asia is able to reap the full benefits of increasing digitalization in the global economy.
Growth in Asia is forecast at 5. Growth in Japan has been above potential for eight consecutive quarters and is expected to remain strong this year at 1. And in India, growth is expected to rebound to 7.
Risks around the outlook are balanced for now but tilted to the downside over the medium term. On the upside, the global recovery could again prove stronger than expected, and over time the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership CPTPP and successful implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative—assuming debt sustainability and project quality are maintained—could both support trade, investment, and growth.
On the downside, Asia remains vulnerable to a sudden and sharp tightening of global financial conditions, while too long a period of easy conditions risks a further buildup of leverage and financial vulnerabilities.
These vulnerabilities could be exacerbated by excessive risk taking and a migration of financial risks toward nonbanks. The gains from globalization have not been shared equally, and, as highlighted by recent tariff actions and announcements, a shift toward inward-looking policies is another risk, with the potential to disrupt international trade and financial markets.
Geopolitical tensions remain another important source of risk. Finally, cybersecurity breaches and cyberattacks are on the rise globally, and climate change and natural disasters could continue to have a significant impact on the region.
Long-term growth prospects for Asia-Pacific are impacted by demographics, slowing productivity growth, and the rise of the digital economy. A second challenge is slowing productivity growth.
Finally, the global economy is becoming increasingly digitalized, and while some recent advances could be truly transformative, they also bring challenges, including those related to the future of work.
Asia is embracing the digital revolution, albeit with significant heterogeneity across the region. Chapter 2 analyzes the factors behind low inflation despite strong growth, and how long this is expected to last.
The findings highlight that temporary global factors, including imported inflation, have been key drivers of low inflation.
And indeed, in line with an upturn in oil prices over recent months, headline inflation in the region has picked up, while core inflation has remained subdued and below target in many economies.
Second, while inflation expectations are generally well anchored to targets, the influence of expectations in driving inflation has declined, as the inflation process has instead become more backward looking.Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..
The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence. The shifting demand for skills in the modern workplace may be working to the benefit of women.
Women, who represent 47% of the overall workforce, make up the majority of workers in jobs where social or analytical skills are relatively more important, 55% and 52%, respectively.
Executive Summary. The U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (hereafter the “Access Board”) is the Federal agency that promotes equality for people with disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and.
Webinar on Release of ACS Five-Year Estimates.
The U.S. Census Bureau will hold a webinar on Nov. 27, , in advance of the Dec. 6 release of the American Community Survey five-year estimates. Now, after the Cold War, far more economic information is openly available, causing some to urge that the Intelligence Community abandon or cut back its historical role in economic intelligence, particularly macroeconomic collection and analysis.
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